In 1992 Cliffor d C. Clogg published a landmark paper in Statistical Science highlightin g the impacts of statistical methodology on sociology and of sociologica l methodology on statistics. The paper, with four comments and Clogg’s reply, all focused on empirics. Earlier, Robert K. Merton (1949) had di scussed the reciprocal impacts of theory and empirics in sociology and J ames S. Coleman (1964) had observed that “in the development of any scie nce, two things are crucial: systematic empirical study and systematic c onceptual elaboration … [and each] requires its special tools.” Thus, w e represent a science by the fourfold classification above. And to visu alize the interplay across disciplines, we trace the lines from one or m ore of the four cells for one discipline to one or more of the four cell s for another.

**"How Sociology Advances Statistics"**

As Clogg understood, substantive questions sometimes arise in so ciology for which there is no ready answer. To illustrate, consider sta tus, which is thought to increase at an increasing rate with rank on cha racteristics like beauty and wealth, generating a standard exponential d istribution. But suppose that status arises from multiple characteristi cs, and suppose further that these characteristics are differently assoc iated (positive, negative, independent). It was already known that if t wo characteristics are equally weighted and independent, the ensuing sta tus distribution is Erlang. But what if two characteristics are perfect ly negatively associated? In this case, the sociological question led t o derivation of a new status distribution, which was christened the ring (2)-exponential and which in turn led to two new families of distributio ns which may prove useful in statistics and in other applications in sci ence and engineering.

**About Guillermina Jasso**

Guillermina Jasso is Silver Professor of Arts and Science and Profess or of Sociology at New York University. She was the founding director of the Methods Workshop at New York University (1991–1997) and the foundin g director of the Theory Workshop at the University of Iowa (1988–1991), as well as a co-founder of the Life Course Center at the University of Minnesota. She served as Special Assistant to the Commissioner of the U. S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (1977–1979) and as Director of Research for the U.S. Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Poli cy (1979–1980). She served as Chair of the Department of Sociology at Ne w York University in 2012–2015.

Jasso has written extensively on b asic sociobehavioral theory, inequality, distributive justice, status, i nternational migration, probability distributions, mathematical methods for theoretical analysis, and factorial survey methods for empirical ana lysis. Her contributions include a mathematical formula for fairness ass essment, a formula showing how overall injustice can be decomposed into injustice due to poverty and injustice due to inequality, and two new fa milies of probability distributions. She has published widely in scholar ly journals, including two articles which won awards from the Population Section of the American Sociological Association and the Law and Societ y Association. She is a Principal Investigator of the New Immigrant Surv ey, the first national longitudinal survey of immigrants in the United S tates.

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